Mars isn’t a very welcoming planet for humans. The atmosphere in Mars is unbreathable and the rays coming from the Sun very dangerous, as they can provoke cancer. On the surface, the pressure is so small that outside the habitat or without the spacial suit the saliva and the blood of the astronauts would start to boil and their organs would inflate themselves. Although, to live on Mars would be very grateful for the humanity.
Then, how could we live on Mars?
Many studies are underway to try to find some solutions to live on Mars.
The habitat in the red planet
Before the first humans don’t land on Mars, it will be important to send a cargo spacecraft. It will carry some different scientific equipment, between them the take off vehicle, which will enable the astronauts to take off again one time their mission will be finished.
The module that will serve as habitat on Mars will be situated in the Martian orbit, where the cargo spacecraft will have let it, and it will wait for the astronauts to arrive, grab it and bring it to the surface. Afterwards, on the module, the astronauts will land the module in the planned place in which they will be on Mars. They will be able to add to the module inflatable structures to increase the available habitat volume, and tunnels to communicate the different rooms of the persons.
The habitat will be pressurized to get over the feeble atmospheric pressure and it will have to be prepared to protect the astronauts from the dangerous rays coming from the Sun. The base could be fed by electricity coming from the solar panels. Although, to be efficient, they would have to cover a very big surface and the Martin dust could reduce their production. However, there is also the resource of a small electric central using the nuclear energy.
In the begging, they first meals of the astronauts would involve dehydrated. These aliments will be brought from The Earth to Mars into the cargo spacecraft which I’ve mentioned before. However, the astronauts, one time they will have been installed on Mars, they will cultivate some different edible plants, which will rapidly improve their everyday life. These plants could be cultivated without the need of soil thanks to a nutritive solution which is being investigated nowadays in the International Spacial Station.
The water would be accessible in form of ice in many places on Mars, as in the past Mars had had oceans, and now the water is in form of ice. The oxygen could be produced by a method called electrolysis, which is a very simple process which allows to separate the hydrogen and the oxygen, which are the two elements that are present in the molecules of water. Other systems will be able to recycle the air, the water and the different residues generated by the habitants of Mars.
A permanent colony on Mars?
In a new horizon of the spacial conquest, Mars is the principal celestial body that we want to colonize, and it feeds the most crazy projects. Many colonization projects of the red planet are being seriously studied. For this reason, the multi-millionaire Elon Musk, the founder of the enterprise SpaceX (an enterprise that works in the domain of the astronautic), wants to create a colony of one million of persons on Mars in 40 or 100 years. The purpose of this project is to give a resource to the humanity in case that a disaster took place in the Earth. These projects are criticized by the community of scientists as unrealistic. According to them, the difficulties to dominate an environment like Mars’ are nearly insuperable.
The communication with the Earth
The distance between The Earth and Mars don’t make easy the communication between the two planets. Depending to the distance between The Earth and Mars, which changes through the year, a vocal message would take between 4 and 20 minutes to arrive to its destination. So, the astronauts will have to be patient in the moment to communicate with The Earth.