The Moon, for nice that it is, it always shows us the same face. If you observe the Moon during some time, you end by realizing that we always see the same face, the landscape doesn’t change. The face of the Moon that we don’t see from the Earth is called the hidden face of the moon, and it is given the same quantity of light as the face from the Moon that we can see.
The first contact and exploration
The astronauts from the mission Apolo 8 (the first crewed by mission in being sent to the Moon), entered in the lunar orbit in the year of 1968. These astronauts were the first persons in seeing the hidden face of the Moon in direct. Even so, they still won’t walk on the Moon until 1969 with the mission Apolo 11.
Until 2019, all the crewed by and non crewed by missions that were effectuated in our natural satellite, the Moon, were done in the visible face of the Moon, except for two missions, in the year of 1959 the Soviet mission Luna 3, and in 2019 the Chinese space probe Chang’e 4. The mission Luna 3 did only overfly the Moon and took some images, but the Chinese space probe Chang’e 4 effectuated the first lunar landing in the hidden face of the Moon.
The spacecraft Chang’e 4 was equipped with a landing probe which included a low frequency radio, a spectrograph and tools for geological investigation.
In January of 2020, Chang’e 4 sent us a big quantity of information and images of big resolution from the landing module and the rover Yutu-2 that the spacecraft carried so that the rover could do some scientific exploration.
Why does the Moon always shows us the same face?
As the Moon always shows us the same face, we can deduct from this that she doesn’t turn onto she’s axis, and for this reason we can only see one face. But it isn’t this way. All in the universe turns onto its axis, included the Moon. But then, how comes that we can only see one face of the Moon?
What happens, it is that the Moon turns onto its axis and turns around the Earth in the same interval of time: 27 days, 7 hours and 43 minutes. As the Moon takes the same time to turn onto its axis and turn around the Earth, she only shows one of she’s faces to the Earth, provoking the other to don’t be visible from the Earth. This is due to their mutual gravitational interaction between the Moon and the Earth, that after millions of years since the formation of the Moon, they have ended by synchronizing the two movements.
A curiosity from the hidden face of the Moon is that, in some occasions, an 18% of the hidden face of the Moon can be visible from the Earth. The remaining 82% couldn’t be photographed until the 7th October of 1959 by the Soviet spacecraft Luna 3.
What’s on the hidden face of the Moon?
In this part of the Moon, the landscape is more irregular than in the other part. In the hidden face of the Moon there is one of the biggest impact craters of the solar system. This crater of the Moon is the basin of the South Pole-Aitken (SPA). It has 2 500 kilometres of diameter and about 6 km of depth.
There are people who think that there is alien life in the hidden face of the Moon and that it is an alien spatial base. One of these theories is that there is a door that opens to let the alien spaceships in the Moon.
There is also people that, after studying a picture of the crater Giordano Bruno, of 22 km of diameter, affirmed that there had been an alien civilization on the Moon. In a YouTube video, he explained that he had found destructed or damaged “structures” that could have had about 100 million years. Some of the structures had reflective roofs and others seemed ships.
Putting aside these theories, which we could qualify as science-fiction, what we can affirm is that every time we obtain more data about the furthest part of the Moon and about the Moon in general. For this year 2020 it is planned that for the Chinese mission Chang’e 4 to return to the Earth at least 2 kg. Of soil and samples of lunar rocks.